Books prominently featuring black grandmothers

Additional Sources
Altshuler, Sandra J. 1998. “Child Well-Being in Kinship Foster Care: Similar To, Or Different From, Non-Related Foster Care?” Children and Youth Services Review 20(5): 369-388.

Anderson, S. and Righton. 2001. “Impact of TANF on State Kinship Foster Care Programs.” University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, School of Social Work, Child and Family Research Center.

Bachman, Heather and Lindsay Chase-Lansdale. 2005. “Custodial Grandmothers Physical, Mental, and Economic Well-Being: Comparisons of Primary Caregivers from Low-Income Neighborhoods.” Family Relations 54: 475-487.

Beeman, Sandra K., Hyungmo Kim, and Susan K. Bullerdick. 2000. “Factors Affecting Placement of Children in Kinship and Non-kinship Foster Care.” Children and Youth Services Review 22(1): 37-54.

Berrick, Jill Duerr. 1998. “When Children Cannot Remain Home: Foster Family Care and Kinship Care.” The Future of Children 8(1): 72-87.

Berrick, Jill Duerr, Barbara Needell, and Meredith Minkler. 1999. “The Policy Implications of Welfare Reform for Older Caregivers, Kinship Care, and Family Configuration.” Children and Youth Services Review 21(9/10): 843-864.

Berrick, Jill Duerr, Richard P. Barth and Barbara Needell. 1994. “A Comparison of Kinship Foster Homes and Foster Family Homes: Implications for Kinship Foster Care as Family Preservation.” Children and Youth Services Review 16: 33-63.

Billing, Amy, Jennifer Ehrle Macomber, and Katherine Kortenkamp. 2002. “Children Cared for by Relatives: What Do We Know about Their Well-Being?” Number B-46 in Series, New Federalism: National Survey of America’s Families. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Boots, Shelley Waters and Rob Geen. 1999. “Family Care of Foster Care? How State Policies Affect Kinship Caregivers.” Series A, No. A- 34, New Federalism: National Survey of America’s Families. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Bowers, Bonita F. and Barbara J. Myers. 1999. “Grandmothers Providing Care for Grandchildren: Consequences of Various Levels of Caregiving.” Family Relations 48(3):303-311.

Brown, Diane R. and Joan Mars. 2000. “Profile of Contemporary Grandparenting in African American Families.” Pp. 203-217 in To Grandmother’s House We Go and Stay: Perspectives on Custodial Grandparents, edited by Carole B. Cox. New York, NY: Springer.

Brown, Diane R. and D.B. Monye. 1995. “Midlife and Older African American as Intergenerational Caregivers of School-Aged Children.” Final Report to AARP Andrus Foundation. Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons.

Brown, Emma J., Loretta Sweet Jemmott, Freida H. Outlaw, Greer Wilson, Monique Howard, and Saleema Curtis. 2000. “African American Grandmothers’ Perceptions of Caregiver Concerns Associated with Rearing Adolescent Grandchildren.” Archives of Psychiatric Nursing XIV (2): 73-80.

Burnette, Denise. 1997. “Grandmother Caregivers in Inner-City Latino Families: A Descriptive Profile and Informal Social Supports.” Pp. 121-137 in The Challenge of Permanency Planning in a Multicultural Society, edited by Gary R. Anderson, Angela Shen Ryan and Bogart R. Leashore. London, England: The Haworth Press, Inc.

___. 1997b. “Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the Inner-City.” Families in City 78: 489-499.

___. 1997c. “Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren: A School-Based Small Group Intervention.” Research on Social Work Practice 8(1): 10-27.

Burton, Linda M. 1992. “Black Grandparents Rearing Children of Drug-Addicted Parents: Stressors, Outcomes, and Social Service Needs.” The Gerontologist 32(6): 744-751.

______. 1993. A New Look at Families and Aging. New York, NY: Baywood Publishing.

_____. 1995. “Intergenerational Patterns of Providing Care in African American Families with Teenage Childbearers: Emergent Patterns in an Ethnographic Study.” Pp. 79-96 in Intergenerational Issues in Aging, edited K.W. Schaie, V.L. Bengston, and L.M. Burton. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.

Burton, Linda M. and Cynthia Merriwether-de Vries. 1992. “Challenges and Rewards: African American Grandparents as Surrogate Parents.” Generations 17: 51-54.

Burton, Linda M. and Vemn L. Bengtson. 1985. “Black Grandmothers: Issues of Timing and Continuity of Roles.” Pp. 61-77 in Grandparenthood, edited by V.L. Bengtson and J.F. Robertson. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Burton, Linda M. and S. Sorensen. 1993. “Temporal Dimensions of Intergenerational Caregiving in African American Multigeneration Families.” In Caregiving Systems: Informal and Formal Helpers, edited by S.H. Zarit, L.I. Pearlin, and K.W. Schaie. New York, NY: Erlbaum Associates.

Burton, Linda M., Peggye Dilworth- Anderson, and Cynthia Merriwether-de Vries. 1995. “Context and Surrogate Parenting Among Contemporary Grandparents.” Marriage and Family Review 20(3/4): 349-365.

Casillas, Ofelia and Dahleen Glanton. 2010. “Is DCFS Diverting Cases to Save Costs? Child-Custody Cases Steered to Probate Court, Putting More of the Financial Burden on Families.” Chicago Tribune, April 5.

Casper, Lynne M. and Kenneth Bryson. 1998. “Co-Resident Grandparents and Their Grandchildren: Grandparent Maintained Families.” Population Division Working Paper No. 26, Population Division, Bureau of the Census, Washington DC.

Chalfie, D. 1994. “Going It Alone: A Closer Look at Grandparents Rearing Grandchildren.” Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons.

Chipman, R. S., J. Wells, and M. A. Johnson. 2002. “The Meaning of Quality in Kinship Foster Care: Caregiver, Child, and Worker Perspectives.” Families in Society 83(5/6): 508-520.

Coakley, Tanya M., Gary Cuddeback, Cheryl Buehler, and Mary Ellen Cox. 2007. “Kinship Foster Parents’ Perceptions of Factors that Promote or Inhibit Successful Fostering.” Children and Youth Services Review 29: 92-109.

Connealy, Margaret and Yosikazu DeRoos. 2000. “Grandparenting and Family Preservation.” Pp. 22-34 in Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical, and Clinical Perspectives, edited by Bert Hayslip Jr. and Robin Goldberg-Glen. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Cooney, T. M. and J. Shin-An. 2006. “Women in the Middle: Generational Position and Grandmothers’ Adjustment to Raising Grandchildren.” Journal of Women & Aging 18(2): 3- 24.

Creighton, Linda L. 1991. “Silent Saviors.” U.S. News & World Report, December 1, pp. 681-89.

Danzy, Julia and Sondra M. Jackson. 1997. “Family Preservation and Support Services: A Missed Opportunity for Kinship Care.” Child Welfare League of America LXXVI (1): 31-43.

Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye, Linda Burton, and N. Johnson. 1993. “Reframing Theories for Understanding Race, Ethnicity, and Families.” Pp. 627-646 in Sourcebook of Family Theories and Methods: A Contextual Approach, edited P.G. Boss, W.J. Doherty, R. LaRossa, W.R. Schumm, and S.K. Steinmetz. New York, NY: Plenum.

Dilworth-Anderson, Peggye, Sharon Wallace Williams, and Theresa Wallace. 1999. “The Contexts of Experiencing Emotional Distress among Family Caregivers to Elderly African Americans.” Family Relations 48(4): 391-396.

Dolan, Melissa M., Cecilia Casanueva, Keith R. Smith, and Robert Bradley. 2009. “Parenting and the Home Environment Provided by Grandmothers of Children in the Child Welfare System.” Children and Youth Services Review 31: 784-796.

Dowdell, E.B. 1995. “Caregiver Burden: Grandparents Raising Their High Risk Children.” Journal of Psychosocial Nursing 33(3): 27-30.

Dressel, P. and Sandra Barnhill. 1994. “Reframing Gerontological Thought and Practice: The Case of Grandmothers with Daughters in Prison.” The Gerontologist 34: 685-690.

Dubowitz, Howard, S. Feigelman., and S. Zuravin. 1993. “A Profile of Kinship Care.” Child Welfare 72(2): 153-169.

Dubowitz, Howard, Susan Feigelman and Donna Harrington, Raymond Starr, Jr., Susan Zuravin, and Richard Sawyer. 1994. “Children in Kinship Care: How Do They Fare?” Children and Youth Services Review 16(1-2): 85-106.

Eggebeen, David J. and Dennis P. Hogan. 1990. “Giving Between the Generations in African American Families.” Human Nature 1: 211-232.

Ehrle, Jennifer and Rob Geen. 2002. “Children Cared for by Relatives: What Services Do They Need?” Policy Brief B-47, Assessing the New Federalism. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Ehrle, Jennifer, Rob Geen, and R. Clark. 2001. “Children Cared for by Relatives: Who are They and How are They Faring?” Urban Institute Series B, B-28. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Emick, Michelle and Bert Hayslip. 1996. “Custodial Grandparenting: New Roles for Middle Aged and Older Adults.” International Journal of Aging and Human Development 43(2): 135-154.

Emick, Michelle and Bert Hayslip. 1999. “Custodial Grandparenting: Stresses, Coping Skills, and Relationships with Grandchildren.” International Journal of Aging and Human Development 48: 35-61.

Flint, Margaret M. and Melinda Perez-Porter. 1997a. “Grandparent Caregivers.” Journal of Gerontological Social Work (48): 35-61. _______. 1997b. “Grandparent Caregivers: Legal and Economic Issues.” Journal of Gerontological Social Work 28 (1): 63-76.

Frazier, Franklin E. 1939. The Negro Family in the United States. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Fuller-Thomson, Esme, Meredith Minkler, and D. Drive. 1997. “A Profile of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren in the United States.” The Gerontologist 37(3): 406-411.

Gebel, T.J. 1996. “Kinship Care and Non-Relative Family Foster Care: A Comparison of Caregiver Attributes and Attitudes.” Child Welfare LXXV: 5-18.

Geen, Rob and Jill Duerr Berrick. 2002. “Kinship Care: An Evolving Service Delivery Option.” Children and Youth Services Review 24(1/2): 1-14.

Gecas, Viktor. 1989. “The Social Psychology of Efficacy.” Annual Review of Sociology 15: 291-316.

Gibson, Priscilla A. 1999. “African American Grandmothers: New Mothers Again.” Affilia 14(3): 329-343. ___. 2002. “African American Grandmothers as Caregivers: Answering the Call to Help Their Grandchildren.” Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services 35- 43.

___. 2005. “Intergenerational Parenting from the Perspective of African American Grandmothers.” Family Relations 54: 280-297.

Gladstone, James W. and Ralph A. Brown. 2007. “Grandparents and Social Workers Experiences with the Child Welfare System: A Case for Mutual Resources.” Children and Youth Services Review 29: 1439-1453.

Gladstone, James W., Ralph A. Brown, and Kerri-Ann J. Fitzgerald. 2009. “Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren: Tensions, Service Needs and Involvement with Child Welfare Agencies.” International Journal and Human Development 69(1): 55-78.

Gleeson, James P. 1999. “Kinship Care as a Child Welfare Service: Emerging Policy Issues and Trends” Pp. 28-53 in Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice and Research edited by Rebecca L. Hegar and Maria Scannapieco. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Gleeson, James P. and L. Craig. 1994. “Kinship Care in Child Welfare: An Analysis of States’ Policies.” Children and Youth Services Review 16(1-2): 7-31.

Gleeson, James P., Julia M. Wesley, Racquel Ellis, Claire Seryak, Gwen Walls Talley, and Jackie Robinson. 2009. “Becoming Involved in Raising a Relative’s Child: Reasons, Caregiver Motivations and Pathways to Informal Kinship Care.” Child and Family Social Work: 1-11.

Gleeson, James P., John O’Donnell, and Faith Johnson Bonecutter. 1997. “Understanding the Complexity of Practice in Kinship Foster Care.” Child Welfare League of America LXXVI (6): 801-826.

Goodman, Catherine Chase. 2003. “Intergenerational Triads in Grandparent- Headed Families.” The Gerontological Society of America 58B (5): 281-289.

Goodman, Catherine Chase and Merrill Silverstein. 2001. “Grandmothers Who Parent Their Grandchildren: An Exploratory Study of Close Relations Across Three Generations.” Journal of Family Issues 22: 557-578.

_____. 2002. “Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Family Structure and Well-Being in Culturally Diverse Families.” The Gerontologist 42: 676-689.

_____. 2006. “Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren.” Journal of Family Issues 27(11): 1605-1626.

Goodman, Catherine Chase, Marilyn Potts, Eileen Mayers Pasztor, and Dolores Scorzo. 2004. “Grandmothers as Kinship Caregivers: Private Arrangements Compared to Public Child Welfare Oversight.” Children and Youth Services Review 26: 287-305.

Hagestad, Gunhild O. and Linda M. Burton. 1986. “Grandparenthood, Life Context, and Family Development.” American Behavioral Scientist 29(4): 471-484.

Hagestad, Gunhild O. and B. L. Neugarten. 1985. “Aging and the Life Course.” In Handbook of Aging and the Social Sciences, edited E. Shanas and R. Binstock. New York, NY: Van Nostrand Reinhold.

Harden, Brenda Jones, Robert B. Clyman, Dawn K. Kriebel, and Mary E. Lyons. 2004. “Kith and Kin Care: Parental Attitudes and Parental Attitudes and Resources of Foster and Relative Caregivers.” Children and Youth Services 26: 657-671.

Harden, A. W., R. L. Clark, and K. Maguire. 1997. “Informal and Formal Kinship Care.” Volume I: Narrative Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Harvard Law Review. 1999. “The Policy of Penalty in Kinship Care.”

Hayslip, Bert Jr. and Patricia Kaminski. 2005. “Grandparents Raising Their Grandchildren: A Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Practice.” The Gerontologist 45: 262-269.

Hayslip, Bert Jr., R. Jerald Shore, Craig E. Henderson, and Paul L. Lambert. 1998. “Custodial Grandparenting and the Impact of Grandchildren with Problems on Role Satisfaction and Role Meaning.” Journal of Gerontology 53B (3): SI64-SI73.

Hegar, Rebecca and Maria Scannapieco. 1995. “From Family Duty to Family Policy: The Evolution of Kinship Care.” Child Welfare 74(1): 200-216.

Henderson, Tammy L. and Jennifer L.Cook. 2005. “Grandma’s Hands: Black Grandmothers Speak About their Experiences Rearing Grandchildren on TANF.” International Journal of Aging and Human Development 61(1):1-19.

Hogan, Dennis P., David J. Eggebeen, and Clifford C. Clogg. 1993. “The Structure of Intergenerational Exchanges in American Families.” American Journal of Sociology 98: 1428-1458.

Hogan, Dennis P., Ling-Xin Hao, and William L. Parish. 1990. “Race, Kin Networks, and Assistance to Mother-Headed Families.” Social Forces 68: 797-812.

Hornby, Helaine, Dennis Zeller, and David Karraker. 1996. “Kinship Care in America: What Outcomes Should Policy Seek?” Child Welfare League of America LXXV (5):397-418.

Hunter, Andrea. G. and R. J. Taylor. 1998. “Grandparenthood in African American Families.” Pp. 70-86 in Handbook of Grandparenthood, edited by M.E. Szinovacz. Westport, CT: London.

Jackson, Sondra M. 1996. “The Kinship Triad: A Service Delivery Model.” Child Welfare League of America LXXV (5): 583-599.

Jang, Yuri, Amy R. Borenstein, David A. Chiriboga, Karon Phillips and James A. Mortimer. 2006. “Religiosity, Adherence to Traditional Culture, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Elders.” Journal of Applied Gerontology 25 (5):343-355.

Janicki, M. P., P. McCallion, L. Grant-Griffin, S. Kolomer. 2000. “Grandparent Caregivers: Characteristics of the Grandparents and the Children with Disabilities for Whom They Care.” Journal of Gerontological Social Work 33(3): 35-56.

Jarrett, Robin L. 1994. “African American Mothers and Grandmothers in Poverty: An Adaptational Perspective.” Journal of Contemporary Family Studies 29(3): 387-395. _____. 1997. “African American Family and Parenting Strategies in Impoverished Neighborhoods.” Qualitative Sociology 20(2): 275-288.

Jarrett, Robin L. and Burton, Linda. M. 1999. “Dynamic Dimensions of Family Structure in Low-Income African American Families: Emergent Themes in Qualitative Research.” Journal of Comparative Family Studies 30(2):177-187.

Jendrek, M.P. 1994. “Grandparents Who Parent Their Grandchildren: Circumstances and Decisions.” The Gerontologist (34): 206-216.

Jimenez, Jillian. 2002. “The History of Grandmothers in the African American Community.” Social Service Review December: 523-549.

Johnson, Charles. 1934. Shadow of the Plantation. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. _______ 1941. Growing Up in the Black Belt. New York, NY: Schocken Books.

Jones, L. and J. Kennedy. 1996. “Grandparents United: Intergenerational Development Education.” Child Welfare LXXV: 636-650.

Joslin, Daphne. 2000. “Emotional Well-Being among Grandparents Raising Children Affected and Orphaned by HIV Disease. Pp. 87-105 in Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Theoretical, Empirical, and Clinical Perspectives, edited by Bert Hayslip Jr. and R. Goldberg-Glen. New York, NY: Springer.

Joslin, Daphne and A. Broudard, 1995. “The Prevalence of Grandmothers as Primary Caregivers in a Poor Pediatric Population.” Journal of Community Health 20(5): 383-401.

Joslin, Daphne and Ruth Harrison. 1988. “The ‘Hidden Patient’: Older Relatives Raising Children Orphaned by AIDS.” Journal of the American Women’s Medical Association 53(2): 65-71.

Kahana, E., B. Kahana, J. Johnson, R.J. Hammond, and K. Kercher. 1994. “Developmental Challenges and Family Caregiving: Bridging Concepts and Research.” Pp. 3-41 in Family Caregiving Across the Lifespan, edited by E. Kahana, D.E. Biegel, and M.L. Wykle. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Kelley, Susan J. 1993. “Caregiver Stress in Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.” Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 25(4): 331-337.

Kelley, Susan J. and E.G. Damato. 1995. Grandparents as Primary Caregivers. Maternal Child Nursing 20: 326–332.

Kelley, Susan J., Beatrice Crofts Yorker, and Deborah Whitley. 1997. “To Grandmothers House We Go …..and Stay: Children Raised in Intergenerational Families.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing 20: 326-332.

Kelley, Susan J., Deborah Whitley, Theresa A. Sipe, and Beatrice Crofts Yorker. 2000. “Psychological Distress in Grandmother Kinship Care Providers: The Role of Resources, Social Support, and Physical Health.” Child Abuse and Neglect 24(3): 311-321.

Kramer, Betty J. 1993. “Expanding the Conceptualization of Caregiver Coping: The Importance of Relationship-Focused Coping Strategies.” Family Relations 42(4): 383-391.

Kusserow, Richard. 1992. “Using Relatives for Foster Care.” Washington DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Inspector General. Leos-Urbel, Jacob, Roseana Bess, and Rob

Geen. 2000. State Policies for Assessing and Supporting Kinship Foster Parents. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

____. “The Evolution of Federal and State Policies for Assessing and Supporting Kinship Caregivers.” Children and Youth Services Review 24(1/2): 37-52.

LeProhn, N. 1994. “The Role of the Kinship Foster Parent: A Comparison of the Role Conceptions of Relative and Non-Relative Foster Parents.” Children and Youth Services Review 16(1/2): 65-84.

McAdoo, Harriette Pipes. 1980. “Role of Black Women in Maintaining Stability and Mobility in Black Families.” In The Black woman, edited by L. Rodgers-Rose. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

McDonald, Katrina Bell and Elizabeth Armstrong. 2001. “De-Romanticizing Black Intergenerational Support: The Questionable Expectations of Welfare Reform.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 63: 213-223.

McGowen, M. R., L. Ladd, and R.D. Strom. 2006. On-Line Assessment of Grandmother Experience in Raising Grandchildren. Educational Gerontology 32: 669−684.

McLean, Beth and Rebecca Thomas. 1996. “Informal and Formal Kinship Care Populations: A Study in Contrast.” Child Welfare League of America LXXV (5): 489-505.

Martin, Elmer and Joanne Mitchell Martin. 1978. The Black Extended Family. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Mattis, Jacqueline S. “Religion and Spirituality in the Meaning-Making and Coping Experiences of African American Women: A Qualitative Analysis.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 26: 309-321.

Meyer, L.L. and B.M. Newman. 2004. “An Exploration of the Grandparent Caregiver Role.” Journal of Family Issues 25 (8): 1005-1025.

Mills, Crystal S. and Debra Usher. 1996. “A Kinship Care Case Management Approach.” Child Welfare League of America LXXV (5): 600-618.

Minkler, Meredith. 1999. “Intergenerational Households Headed by Grandparents: Contexts, Realities, and Implications for Policy.” Journal of Aging Studies 13(2): 199-218.

Minkler, Meredith, Jill Duerr Berrick, and Barbara Needall. 1999. “Impacts of Welfare Reform on California Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Reflections from the Field.” Journal of Aging and Social Policy 10(3): 45-63.

Minkler, Meredith and Esme Fuller-Thomson. 1999. “Health of Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: Results of a National Study.” American Journal of Public Health 89(9): 1384–89.

_____. 2005. “African American Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: A National Study Using the Census 2000 American Community Survey.” Journals of Gerontology 60B (2): 82-92.

Minkler, Meredith, Esme Fuller-Thomson, Doriane Miller, and Diane Driver. 1997. “Depression in Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.” Archives of Family Medicine 6 (September): 445-452.

_____. 2000. “Grandparent Caregiving and Depression.” Pp. 207–19. In Grandparents Raising Grandchildren, edited by Bert Hayslip Jr. and Robin Goldberg-Glen. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.

Minkler, Meredith and Kathleen M. Roe. 1993. Grandmothers as Caregivers: Raising Children of the Crack Cocaine Epidemic. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

_____. 1996. “Grandparents as Surrogate Parents.” Generations 20: 34-38.

Minkler, Meredith, Kathleen M. Roe, and M. Price. 1992. “The Physical and Emotional Health of Grandmothers Raising Grandchildren in the Crack Cocaine Epidemic.” The Gerontologist 32: 752-760.

Morrow-Kondos, Diane, Joseph A. Weber, Kathy Cooper, and Jenny L. Hesser. 1997. “Becoming Parents Again: Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.” Journal of Gerontological Social Work 28(1&2): 35-46.

Mullen, F. 2000. “Grandparents and Welfare Reform.” Pp. 3-19 in To Grandmother’s House We Go and Stay: Perspectives on Custodial Grandparents, edited by C.B. Cox. New York: Springer.

Mullen, F. and M. Einhorn. 2000. “The Effects of State TANF Choices on Grandparent-Headed Households.” Washington, DC: American Association of Retired Persons.

Murphy, Yvette S., Andrea G. Hunter, and Deborah J. Johnson. 2008. “Transforming Caregiving: African American Custodial Grandmothers and the Child Welfare System.” Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare XXXV (2):67-89.

Musil, Carol M. 1998. “Health, Stress, Coping and Social Support in Grandmother Caregivers.” Health Care for Women International 19: 441-455. ______. 2000. “Health of Grandmothers as Caregivers: A Ten Month Follow-Up.” Journal of Women & Aging 12(1-2): 129 -145.

Musil, Carol M. and Muayyad Ahmad. 2002. “Health of Grandmothers: A Comparison by Caregiver Status.” Journal of Aging and Health 14(1): 96-121.

Musil, Carol M., S. Schrader, and J. Mutikani. 2000. Social Support, Stress, and Special Coping Tasks of Grandmother Caregivers. Pp. 56-70 in To Grandmother’s House We Go and Stay: Perspectives on Custodial Grandparents, edited by C.B. Cox. New York, NY: Springer.

Mutran, Elizabeth. 1985. “Intergenerational Family Support Among Blacks and Whites: Response to Culture or to Socioeconomic Differences.” Journal of Gerontology 40(3): 382-389.

Myers, Barbara. 1984. “Child-Rearing Across the Generations: Grandmothers, Mothers, and Toddlers.” Infant Behavior & Development 7: 263.

Myers, Barbara J. and M.G. Williams-Petersen. 1991. “Beliefs and Memories about Child-Rearing Across Generations: Mothers and Grandmothers of One Year-Old Infants.” Early Child Development and Care 67: 111-128.

Navaie-Waliser, Maryam, Penny H. Feldman, David A. Gould, Carol Levine, Alexis N. Kuerbis, and Karen Donelan. 2001. “The Experiences and Challenges of Informal Caregivers: Common Themes and Differences among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics.” The Gerontologist Society of America 41(6): 733-741.

O’Brien, Patricia, Carol Rippey Massat, and James P. Gleeson. 2001. “Upping the Ante: Relative Caregivers’ Perceptions of Changes in Child Welfare Policies.” Child Welfare League of America LXXX (6): 719-748.

Park, Hwa-Ok. 2004. “Grandmothers as Primary Caregivers: Poverty, Care Demands, Social Participation, and Psychological Distress.” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Social Work, University of Wisconsin. Retrieved from ProQuest Information and Learning Company.

Pasztor, Eileen Mayers, Catherine Chase Goodman, Marilyn Potts, Monica Insuasti Santana, and R. Akil Runnels. 2002. “Kinship Caregivers and Social Workers: The Challenge of Collaboration.” Presented by the Department of Social Work, California State University, Long Beach.

Pebely, Anne R. and Laura L. Rudkin. 1999. “Grandparents Caring for Grandchildren: What Do We Know?” Journal of Family Issues 20: 218-242.

Peters, Jay. 2005. “True Ambivalence: Child Welfare Workers Thoughts, Feelings and Beliefs about Kinship Foster Care.” Children and Youth Services Review 27: 595-614.

Petras, Donna D. 1999. “The Effect if Caregiver Preparation and Sense of Control on Adaptation of Kinship Caregivers.” In Kinship Care: Improving Practice Through Research edited by James P. Gleeson and Creasie Finney Hairston. Annapolis Junction, MD: Child Welfare League of America.

Pittman, L. 2017. “Safety Net Politics: Economic Survival Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation.” In Relational Poverty Politics! (Un)thinkable Forms, Struggles, Possibilities edited by Vicky Lawson and Sarah Ellwood. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. (In Press)

Pittman, L. 2015. “How Well Does the Safety Net Work for Family Safety Nets? Economic Survival Strategies Among Grandmother Caregivers in Severe Deprivation.” The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences. 1(1): 78-97.

Pittman, L. 2014. “Doing What’s Right for the Baby: Parental Responses and Institutional Decision-Making of Custodial Grandmothers.” Women, Gender, & Families of Color. 2(1): 32-56.

Pittman, L., Nodvin, J. and Howett, M. 2016. “Grandparents as Caregivers for Grandchildren with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.” In Rubin and Crocker 3rd Edition: Health Care for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Across the Lifespan edited by I Leslie Rubin, Joav Merrick, Donald E Greydanus and Dilip R Patel. Pp. 69-77. Switzerland. Springer International Publishing.

Pinson-Millburn, N. M., E. S. Fabian, N. K. Scholssberg, and M. Pyle. 1996. “Grandparents Raising Grandchildren.” Journal of Counseling & Development 74(6): 548−554.

Pruchno, Rachel A. 1999. “Raising Grandchildren: The Experience of Black and White Grandmothers.” The Gerontologist 39: 209-221 Rankin, Sonia Gipson. 2002. “Why They Won’t Take the Money: Black Grandparents and the Success of Informal Kinship Care.” The Elder Law Journal 10: 153-185.

Roberts, Dorothy. 2001. “Kinship Care and the Price of State Support for Poor Children.” Chicago-Kent Law Review (76): 1-30.

______. 2002. Shattered Bonds: The Color of Child Welfare. New York, NY: Basic Books.

______. 2008. “The Racial Geography of Child Welfare: Toward a New Research Paradigm.” Child Welfare 87: 125-150.

Rodgers-Farmer, Antoinette Y. 1999. “Parenting Stress, Depression, and Parenting in Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren.” Children and Youth Services Review 21: 371-388.

Rodgers-Farmer, Antoinette Y. and R.L. Jones. 1999. “Grandmothers Who Are Caregivers: An Overlooked Population.” Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal 16: 455-466.

Roschelle, Anne R. 1997. No More Kin: Exploring Race, Class, and Gender in Family Networks. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Ross, M. E. T. and L.A. Aday. 2006. “Stress and Coping in African American Grandparents Who are Raising Their Grandchildren.” Journal of Family Issues 27: 912−932.

Ruiz, Dorothy. 1999. “Guardians and Caretakers: African American Grandmothers as Primary Caregivers in Intergenerational Families.” African American Research Perspectives 1-10.

_______. 2004. Amazing Grace: African American Grandmothers as Caregivers and Conveyers of Traditional Value. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Ruiz, Dorothy, Carolyn W. Zhu, and Martha R. Crowder. 2003. “Not on Their Own Again: Psychological, Social and Health Characteristics of Custodial African American Grandmothers.” Journal of Women & Aging 15(2): 167-184.

Sands, Roberta G. and Robin S. Goldberg-Glen. 1998. “The Impact of Employment and Serious Illness on Grandmothers who are Raising their Grandchildren.” Journal of Women and Aging 10 (3): 41-58.

_____. 2000. “Factors Associated with Stress Among Grandparents Raising their Grandchildren.” Family Relations 49(1): 97-105.

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